As the passing star moved away, the material separated from the solar surface continued to revolve around the sun and it slowly condensed into planets. Finally, the composition of the atmosphere was modified by the living world through the process of photosynthesis. In 1838, Sir George Darwin suggested that initially, the earth and the moon formed a single rapidly rotating body. The early atmosphere largely contained water vapour, nitrogen, carbon dioxide, methane, ammonia and very little of free oxygen. Take a balloon and mark some points on it to represent the galaxies. Ac… The earth is said to have come into existence 5 billion years ago and life on earth came into existence a billion years after that. Conditions suitable for origin of life existed only upon primitive earth. The Big Bang theory is the prevailing cosmological model for the birth of the universe. The study covers looking at landscapes to work out how the earth surface processes, such as air, water and ice, can mould the landscape. These initial density differences gave rise to differences in gravitational forces and it caused the matter to get drawn together. January 08 . 17 The “Big Six” Elements of Early Earth. Hoyle and Lyttleton: The planets of the solar system have an originated from the expanding gases obtained from the explosion of a supernova. All the planets were formedin the same period sometime about 4.6 billion years ago. Suggested Citation : "The Origin of the Universe, Earth, and Life." The theory failed to explain how the planetesimals had become one planet; Gaseous Tidal Theory. Hydrogen and Helium formed sometime later. Lithosphere, Atmosphere, and Hydrosphere of the Earth Lithosphere: The firm outer part of the earth, comprising of the crust and upper mantle. (1999) With reference to the theory of Plate tectonics, explain the origin and growth of the Young Fold Mountain systems of the World. So, the balloon example is only partially correct. Earth is part of the solar system. Introduction. (iii) Within 300,000 years from the Big Bang, temperature dropped to 4,500 K (Kelvin) and gave rise to atomic matter. Particles began to collide against each other under their mutual gravitational attractions. The Big Bang theory attempts to explain to us the origin of universe. The formation of stars is believed to have taken place some 5-6 billion years ago. Earth - Earth - Development of Earth’s structure and composition: The origin of Earth in its present form has long been the subject of intellectual interest, but since the mid-20th century scientists have made particularly significant advances both in concepts and in measurements. Understanding the basic structure of earth is very important to learn higher concepts well. Discuss the different theories like the early theory (nuclear hypothesis by Kant), binary theory, revised nebular hypothesis, big bang theory. He presented several physiographic evidences in support of subsidence theory and to explain hither to unsolved several problems related to the formation of coral reefs. The Big Bang Theory is the most accepted theory regarding the origin of the planet earth and the existence of different life forms on it. Deciphering the planet’s history and processes could improve the abil-ity to predict catastrophes like earthquakes and volcanoes, to manage Earth’s resources, and Also, the origin of many phenomena like earthquakes, volcanoes, tsunami etc are linked with the structure of earth's interior. Starting from the surface to the central parts, we have layers like the crust, mantle, outer core and inner core. The early atmosphere, with hydrogen and helium, is supposed to have been stripped off as a result of the solar winds. Particles of gases were compressed together, giving off heat. One of the earlier and popular arguments was by German philosopher Immanuel Kant. This test is Rated positive by 86% students preparing for UPSC.This MCQ test is related to UPSC syllabus, prepared by UPSC teachers. Image of Otto Schmidt's Inter-Stellar Dust Cloud Hypothesis. The terrestrial model is the most likely explanation on the formation of the Earth’s crust. In 1796, a mathematician Pierre-Simon Laplace reexamined it. During the cooling of the earth, gases and water vapour were released from the interior solid earth which started the evolution of the present atmosphere. Edwin Hubble, in 1920, provided evidence that the universe is expanding. Later in 1900, Chamberlain and Moulton considered that a wandering star approached the sun. Supernaturally created primordial hard matter was scattered in the universe. However, scientists in later period took up the problems of origin of universe rather than that of just the earth or the planets. UPSC IAS Prelims: Geography:The Origin and Evolution of the Earth. Get video tutorial on: https://www.YouTube.com/c/Examrace. It is now generally accepted that the event of big bang took place 13.7 billion years before the present. The last phase in the evolution of the earth relates to the origin and evolution of life. Earth - Earth - Development of Earth’s structure and composition: The origin of Earth in its present form has long been the subject of intellectual interest, but since the mid-20th century scientists have made particularly significant advances both in concepts and in measurements. Sometime around 3,800 million years ago, life began to evolve. (1999) With reference to the theory of Plate tectonics, explain the origin and growth of the Young Fold Mountain systems of the World. The binary numeral system – where each position is written as a 0 or 1 – forms the foundation of all modern computing systems. Universe formation process; Star formation process; Planets formation process; Development of Lithosphere; Development of atmosphere and Hydrosphere; Origin of life Russell, an American astronomer, propounded his Binary Star Hypothesis in the year 1937 to remove the shortcomings of tidal hypothesis of sir James Jeans. • Sun was considered young and slowly rotating. Study this scenario, which has all the drama of a disaster movie—with colliding planets and a giant moon filling Earth’s sky and then slowly receding over the course of billions of years. The most popular argument regarding the origin of the universe is the Big Bang Theory. It talks of a singular huge explosion unimaginable in physical terms. (iii) In the final stage, these large number of small planetesimals accrete to form a fewer large bodies in the form of planets. As time passes, galaxies move further and further apart. As the star came nearer, the tide increased in size. Origin of earth 1. Class 11 – Chapter 2 – Origin and Evolution of Earth. The microscopic structures closely related to the present form of blue algae have been found in geological formations much older than some 3,000 million years. As per the human development report 2011, the per Capita Gross National Income in India stood at Rs.3,468 for the year 2011. In 1950, Otto Schmidt in Russia and Carl Weizascar in Germany somewhat revised the ‘nebular hypothesis’, though differing in details. (i) In the beginning, all matter forming the universe existed in one place in the form of a “tiny ball” (singular atom) with an unimaginably small volume, infinite temperature and infinite density. Planetesimal Hypothesis, a theory of the origin of the solar system. The early atmosphere, with hydrogen and helium, is supposed to have been stripped off as a result of the solar winds. STEADY STATE THEORY. The universe expanded and hence, the temperature came down. It is an alternative to the Big Bang model of the evolution of the universe. And this course by Bhumika deals with all the topics which are related to it. The present composition of earth’s atmosphere is chiefly contributed by nitrogen and oxygen. The study covers looking at landscapes to work out how the earth surface processes, such as air, water and ice, can mould the landscape. The great issue facing the binary theory today is, well, the absence of an obvious candidate for the part. Also, the origin of many phenomena like earthquakes, volcanoes, tsunami etc are linked with the structure of earth's interior. Most of them are much larger than the terrestrial planets and have thick atmosphere, mostly of helium and hydrogen. The process through which the gases were outpoured from the interior is called degassing. Mathematician Laplace revised it in 1796. Part 1 of 3 – Theories on Origin of the Earth. From the outermost end of the atmosphere to the centre of the earth, the material that exists is not uniform. As a result, a cigar-shaped extension of material was separated from the solar surface. Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *. Turekian and Clark (1969) assume that volatile-rich material came in as a late veneer-the in- homogeneous accretion hypothesis. In the second stage, the hot interior of the earth contributed to the evolution of the atmosphere. Class 11 – Chapter 2 – Origin and Evolution of Earth. It is known as Nebular Hypothesis. Modern scientists refer to the origin of life as a kind of chemical reaction, which first generated complex organic molecules and assembled them. A large number of hypotheses were put forth by different philosophers and scientists regarding the origin of the earth. Origin and Evolution of Earth Research Questions for a Changing Planet Questions about the origins and nature of Earth have long preoccupied human thought and the scientific endeavor. Origin of magmas : Mantle, onset of partial melting of mantle, processes of partial melting in mantle, mantle-magmas in relation to degree and depth-level of partial melting. Alternatively, the first four are called Terrestrial, meaning earth-like as they are made up of rock and metals, and have relatively high densities. This is called chemical evolution which cannot occur under present environmental conditions upon earth. Our Solar system consists of eight planets. The rest four are called Jovian or Gas Giant planets. (ii) The solar wind was most intense nearer the sun; so, it blew off lots of gas and dust from the terrestrial planets. Mathematician ; Laplace revised it in 1796. Mathematician Laplace revised it in 1796. It is known as Nebular Hypothesis. As the star came nearer, the tide increased in size. The theory failed to explain how the planetesimals had become one planet; Gaseous Tidal Theory. The atmospheric condition after the explosion became more stable. To explain the complex problem of the origin of the earth and the solar system. ... Hypothesis: The sun had another companion star which was much bigger than the sun, and the two together constituted a binary system. THEORY ON EVOLUTION. 1. 1. Earth was hot glowing ball of white hot gases. This document is highly rated by UPSC … The most popular argument regarding the origin of the universe is the Big Bang Theory. These notes will also be useful for other competitive exams like banking PO, SSC, state civil services exams and so on. One of the earlier and popular arguments was by German philosopher Immanuel Kant. At a later date, the arguments considered of a companion to the sun to have been coexisting. detailed illustrated notes covering entire syllabus, Life Cycle of River YouTube Lecture Handouts, Mountain Building Classification YouTube Lecture Handouts, Mountain Building Theories- YouTube Lecture Handouts: Part 1 to 2, Origin of Earth 3 Theories YouTube Lecture Handouts, Slope Development YouTube Lecture Handouts, Examrace Geography Series (Postal Course), Origin of Earth Next Theories YouTube Lecture Handouts. Image of Binary Star Hypothesis - Russell. The universe big bang dark upsc geography 2019 upsc prelims 2020 cse ias check the universe big bang dark geography optional upsc Fundamentals Of Earth Part 1 GeographyOrigin Of Earth Iasmania Civil Services PreparationFundamentals Of Earth Part 1 GeographyOrigin And Evolution Of Life On Earth Pmf IasLesson 1 Early Theories Origin And Structure Of The… Read More » Earth is part of the solar system. One of the earlier and popular arguments was by German philosopher Immanuel Kant. Within first three minutes from the Big Bang event, the first atom began to form. To remove the shortcomings of tidal hypothesis of sir James Jeans. H.N. Whether it is a hypothesis or a fact, a new universe was formed. These arguments are called binary theories. Gravity and magnetic fields of earth. This assemblage was such that they could duplicate themselves converting Origin Of Life on Earth. It can be assumed that life began to evolve sometime 3,800 million years ago. Mathematician Laplace revised it in 1796. Early Theories. A galaxy starts to form by accumulation of hydrogen gas in the form of a very large cloud called nebula. The universe became transparent. Eventually, growing nebula develops localised clumps of gas. In the following section, you will find out how the period, between the 4,600 million years and the present, led to the evolution of life on the surface of the planet. Planets were believed to be formed out of a cloud like material associated with Sun. Buffon was the first scientist to give a scientific explanation regarding the origin of the earth and solar system in 1754. Now, if you start inflating the balloon, the points marked on the balloon will appear to be moving away from each other as the balloon expands. You can experiment and find what does the expanding universe mean. This is not in accordance with the fact. This assemblage was such that they could duplicate themselves converting The last phase in the evolution of the earth relates to the origin and evolution of life. The record of life that existed on this planet in different periods is found in rocks in the form of fossils. The rainwater falling onto the surface got collected in the depressions to give rise to oceans. This happened not only in case of the earth, but also in all the terrestrial planets, which were supposed to have lost their primordial atmosphere through the impact of solar winds. It blasted a large part of the earth into space. With passage of time it cooled further and solidified and condensed into a smaller size. This allowed heavier materials (like iron) to sink towards the centre of the earth and the lighter ones to move towards the surface. Binary theories. The Big Bang Theory considers the following stages in the development of the universe. upsc prelims, geography important topic, Origin of the earth, Nebular theory of Laplace, upsc aspirants, In this article (geography section), we discuss the interior of the earth. A galaxy contains a large number of stars. Earth formed around 4.54 billion years ago by accretion from the solar nebula. Due to gradual increase in density the temperature inside has increased. Jeans and Jeffrey proposed the theory in 1925; Large star came near the sun. 7 Theories of Origin of Earth – Part – 2 YouTube Lecture Handouts. The study of landforms, their processes, form, and sediments at the surface of the Earth (and sometimes on other planets) is known as Geomorphology. There are three stages in the evolution of the present atmosphere. Even if the Earth ac- THEORY ON EVOLUTION. Gaseous tide detached when star move away. Part 1 of 3 – Theories on Origin of the Earth. A classic example of a binary opposition is the presence-absence dichotomy. Thereafter, the expansion has slowed down. The chemistry of meteorites and Sun provide constraints on the composition of the bulk of the Earth. For origin of universe image of Otto Schmidt 's Inter-Stellar dust cloud hypothesis ozone around. Through the process of photosynthesis of one to three times that of just the earth like we have.... Theory attempts to explain the purpose of Juno Mission and discuss how it be. 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