Many of them lived much earlier than the date of any Greek manuscripts now extant for a particular book. They argue this way on the analogy of one version, the Latin Vulgate (for it is known historically that Jerome produced this). Consequently, assuming that it is an exact reproduction of the autographs, for almost 2,000 years the doctrine of inspiration was inapplicable. Truth is objective reality; certainty is the level of subjective apprehension of something perceived to be true. Wallace: There Are 1,838 Differences Between Textus Receptus and the Majority Text Biblical Studies • Nov 01, 2017 When I introduce New Testament transmission history and textual criticism, it is amazing to me that there will always be one student who approaches me afterwards with questions about the majority text and/or Westcott and Hort. In his rebuttal of Kurt Aland’s “The Text of the Church?” (Trinity Journal 8 [1987]: 131–44), where Aland gives substantial evidence that the early fathers did not use the majority text, Pickering says, “Something that Aland does not explain, but that absolutely demands attention, is the extent to which these early Fathers apparently cited neither the Egyptian nor the Majority texts—about half the time. Probably not, and for the following reason: a careful distinction must be made between citation, quotation and transcription…. Internal evidence has to do with determining which variant is original on the basis of known scribal habits and the author’s style.               Asterius (d. 341) supported MT 90% (50% against Alexandrian); Though some Byzantine readings existed early, the texttype apparently did not.48. 88–103; idem, “St. Six verses that were not witnessed in any of these sources, he back-translate… It is high time that conservatives recognize both this fact and its implications” (ibid., p. 89). In this translation, instead of rendering Cyril’s quotations from Scripture, Rabbula inserted the wording of the current Syriac version—a method which more than one author followed in translating from Greek into Syriac” (ibid., p. 58). (The papyri have simply confirmed their views.) Now we have many more texts of the Majority Text. Nevertheless the point is not disturbed. Almost all the copies of these early patristic writers come from the Middle Ages. In other words the Greek manuscripts they translated were not Byzantine. 54 See Holmes, “The ‘Majority Text Debate’: New Form of an Old Issue,” p. 17. 42 Frederic G. Kenyon, Handbook to the Textual Criticism of the New Testament, 2d ed. The great faithfulness in the transmission of the Textus Receptus is proven by the startling uniformity of the text. (New York: Macmillan Co., 1912), p. 244. 33 See Bruce M. Metzger’s helpful discussion in The Early Versions of the New Testament: Their Origin, Transmission and Limitations (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1977), pp. The King James Bible is a translation of an edition of the Greek New Testament text called … This euphemistic alteration masks what the real issue is: to deny the majority text is to embrace heresy. Not only would one expect to find it there, but also one would expect it to be in a majority of manuscripts, versions, and fathers. Since the term Textus Receptus has been applied to a variety of Greek New Testament texts over the years, it could be legitimately asked, “which Textus Receptus?” For those who hold this position, the text in mind is the text of Erasmus and the Elzevirs–the text that was eventually used by the King James Bible translators. To be fair, Aland does not state whether there is no clear majority 52 times or whether the Byzantine manuscripts have a few defectors 52 times. These are actually pretty good numbers, and I think it makes the case *FOR* using a Byzantine like RP2005. 41 Though some majority text advocates may wish to deny that scribes did this, such a denial destroys another argument used by majority text advocates. The Westcott-Hort theory, with its many flaws (which all textual critics today acknowledge), was apparently still right on its basic tenet: the Byzantine texttype—or majority text—did not exist in the first three centuries. All of these are isolated “readings.” Even with all these isolated readings that existed in 1611, it is not true that the NASB existed in 1611.) 50 Bruce M. Metzger, “Patristic Evidence and the Textual Criticism of the New Testament,” New Testament Studies 18 (1972): 379–400; idem, “Explicit References in the Works of Origen to Variant Readings in New Testament Manuscripts,” in Historical and Literary Studies, Pagan, Jewish, and Christian (Leiden: E. J. Brill, 1968), pp. In other words Pickering appeals to at least a modicum of critical reconstruction of a church father’s words. Their high appraisal of the [Alexandrian] tradition in preference to “Western” or Byzantine readings rests essentially on internal evidence of readings…it is upon this basis that most contemporary critics, even while rejecting [Westcott and Hort’s] historical reconstructions, continue to follow them in viewing the Majority text as secondary.52, In other words Westcott and Hort—without the knowledge of the early papyri discovered since their time—felt that the majority text was inferior because of internal evidence. 10 Pickering, The Identity of the New Testament Text, p. 154. And that is precisely the issue taken up in this article. So the Textus Receptus is definitely a Byzantine text, but far from a purely Byzantine text. Doing it this way has given me a reassurance as to another reason why I'm pro-King James. 36 Ibid., p. 385. 43 Remarkably, Pickering has most recently argued on both sides of the issue. Whether these writers used the Egyptian text is not the issue here; indeed, perhaps Aland makes too much of this (and Pickering ably points this out). But if the majority text view is right, then each one of these versions was based on polluted Greek manuscripts—a suggestion that does not augur well for God’s providential care of the New Testament text, as that care is understood by the majority text view.38 But if these versions were based on polluted manuscripts, one would expect them to have come from (and be used in) only one isolated region. The Textus Receptus is the text that has been used for 2,000 years by Christians. He has a Ph.D. from Dallas Theological Seminary, and is currently professor of New Testament Studies at his alma mater. The fact that the Majority Text alters the Comma Johanneum (1 John 5:7–8) (against the Textus Receptus) means that it has deleted the strongest proof text of the Trinity from the New Testament. It is laregely the text which lies behind the Textus Receptus and the King James Version." Historically only since 1982 has The Greek New Testament according to the Majority Text (hereafter referred to as the Majority Text) been available. 40 This point is significant because majority text advocates labor strenuously to prove merely the early existence of the Byzantine text, while tacitly assuming that this would also prove numerical superiority in the early centuries. The Coptic version also goes back to an early date, probably the second century34—and it was a translation of Alexandrian manuscripts, not Byzantine ones. 39 The versions also clarify the situation in another way. For one thing Pickering has charged Hort with being prejudiced against the Byzantine texttype from the very beginning of his research: “It appears Hort did not arrive at his theory through unprejudiced intercourse with the facts. 60 The Identity of the New Testament Text, p. 150. There is in fact some evidence that suggests that it was not until the ninth or tenth century that the Byzantine manuscripts really had high agreement with the Majority Text. 56–63.) So the agreement is better than 99 percent. But I'm pretty sure that the textual character of any MS could be identified confidently whether it was collated against NA25 or against NA27. Some lived in the first or early second century. Erasmus used several Greek manuscripts, which were eastern / Byzantine in nature. To be sure, isolated Byzantine readings have been found, but not the Byzantine texttype. Although a portion of the Western text does omit the ascension in Luke 24:51, it retains it in Acts 1:11 (a few Western witnesses omit the second “into heaven” [εἰς τὸν οὐρανόν], but not the third “into heaven”). Consequently the majority text and modern critical texts are very much alike, in both quality and quantity. 136–37, commenting on 2 Corinthians 1:6–7a. 15 Although Pickering provides no proof text for his view of preservation, he views it as the logical corollary to inspiration: “If the Scriptures have not been preserved then the doctrine of Inspiration is a purely academic matter with no relevance for us today. But his thesis, which unashamedly declared this doctrinal position, preceded the book by 12 years. Why? How does this relate to scribal changes of patristic New Testament quotations? But the Majority Text differs from the modern critical text in only about 6,500 places. 9 Pickering, “An Evaluation of the Contribution of John William Burgon to New Testament Textual Criticism,” p. 90. Before I die I wanna taste everyone in the world. Too many evangelicals have abandoned an aspect of the faith when the going got tough. The Textus Receptus stands behind the King James Version, the NA27/UBS4 is represented in several modern versions like the NIV, NASB, ESV, the Byzantine Majority Text is represented in the Analytical-Literal Translation (Gary F. Zeolla). In this connection it is significant that Hort argued that no distinctive Byzantine reading had been found in the Fathers in the first three centuries, a point that Fee echoed. This hardly comports with a “majority text” theory. Differences are found in the manuscripts of the Byzantine text types. This can be seen by way of analogy. Frequently the most black-and-white, dogmatic method of arriving at truth is perceived to be truth itself. Consequently, it is certain that the original wording is found either in the text or in the apparatus. That is not true. There are no doctrinal reasons that compel him to believe that it is, and when all the evidence is weighed—both external and internal—it is quite compelling against such a view. In fact theologically one may wish to argue against the majority: usually it is the remnant, not the majority, that is right.17. If the majority text view is right, then one would expect to find this text form (often known as the Byzantine text) in the earliest Greek manuscripts, in the earliest versions, and in the earliest church fathers. To be clear, this list isn’t exhaustive. They argue that since Rabbula did not originate the Peshitta (a point Metzger regards as “proved” by Vööbus, and virtually all textual critics now agree), it must go back early, perhaps as early as the second century. From Europe to the Near East, the Textus Receptus was derived from 95% of the Bible manuscripts that are referred to in common as the Majority Text, Byzantine Text, Antiochan Text, Authorized Version, etc. Even though the Textus Receptus (basically a Byzantine text) was the basis for the Westminster Confession, there is not a single point in the entire confession that would change if it were based upon a modern eclectic text rather than upon the Byzantine text! Thus, when our printed editions were made, the odds favored their early editors coming across manuscripts exhibiting this majority text.2. Hisconsolidated Greek text was based on only seven minuscule manuscripts of theByzantine text type that he had access to in Basel at the time, and he reliedmainly on two of these - both dating from the twelfth century.^^ Although many point to obvious limitations and certain short-comings in Erasmus'first Greek text, later editors used it as their starting point, making minorrevisions as needed based on additional Greek manuscript evidence. (For rebuttal of so early a date, see ibid., pp. They seem to be reacting to the evidence consistently at different isolated points but seem to be unable to break away from the Hort framework. And virtually all the copies of the fathers come from the ninth century or later. "There's no question that the TR is in the Byzantine family, and certainly a TR collation will determine if a given manuscript is Byzantine or not, but that is not always the question we want to answer. Only 1,440 textual problems are listed, though there are over 300,000 textual variants among the manuscripts. The primary premise in the majority text view is this: “Any reading overwhelmingly attested by the manuscript tradition is more likely to be original than its rival(s).”30 In other words when the majority of manuscripts agree, that is the original.31 Majority text advocates have turned this presumption into a statistical probability.32 But in historical investigation, statistical probability is almost always worthless. On February 23 the present writer responded. Not at all. In any case, Aland’s objectivity is suspect—all his statements of evidence need to be verified by someone with a different bias” (“The Text of the Church” [unpublished paper distributed to members of the Majority Text Society, November 1989], p. 4). About what the original text exists in the majority of the Bible manuscripts in Koine ( common ).... 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