This study demonstrates that S. alterniflora Salt stress could be a potential source of candidate genes conferring tolerance against high temperature in addition Spartina alterniflora to salt tolerance for crop improvement. 2). Other ecologists have also shown that some non‐resource stress can substantially influence plant competitiveness (Emery et al. Spartina plants have a salt gland and thus can excrete excess salt on the leaf face (Levering and Thomson 1971, Wang et al. Zonation of Spartina patens and Spartina alterniflora in a New England salt marsh. 2 and 5) (Chen et al. National Center for Biotechnology Information, Unable to load your collection due to an error, Unable to load your delegates due to an error. 2011). 3 and 5). These two theories do not distinguish between resource and non‐resource stress when predicting the nature of plant interactions along an environmental gradient. The experiment was conducted on the mudflats of Dongtan marsh within a 60 × 60 m2 area containing a tidal creek ca. Asterisks (*) indicate that the RNE is greater than zero (*p < 0.05, **p < 0.01, ***p < 0.001). In this study, we used Pacific Biosciences (PacBio) full-length single-molecule long-read sequencing and RNA-seq to elucidate the transcriptome dynamics of high salt tolerance in Spartina by salt gradient experiments. Overall, this study suggests that the salt tolerance mechanism in Spartina is different from rice in many aspects and is far more complex than expected. NAI is the difference of P. australis performances between the presence and absence of transplanted S. alterniflora. In this study, several types of experiments have been conducted: pot experiments have been conducted to test the two plants' ecological amplitude with respect to salinity; competitive experiments in the field have been used to test the effects of salinity on competitiveness of two plants; and transplant experiments in the field have further been used to illustrate the differences in the performance of native P. australis between the presence and absence of invasive S. alterniflora, which represented the competition influence of new arrivals on the stability of native communities along the salinity gradient. The controlled system consists of 100 cement pools (length 1.5 m × width 1.5 m × height 0.6 m). The surveys were conducted in mid‐October of 2004 and 2008. The zones below the mean neap‐tide water level have a medium salinity because of large‐scale input of water from tidal subsidies. If you do not receive an email within 10 minutes, your email address may not be registered, 55(3): 221-238. In each survey, two transects (south/north) with an interval of 1100 m throughout the vegetation were investigated (Fig. Synthesis. 2 and 3) (Vasquez et al. Data shown are the mean interspecific relative neighbor effects (RNE) in the aboveground dry biomass in the treatment of salinity level in two years. The collected plant materials were cut into similar‐sized plantlets ca. | This indicated that the community stability of native P. australis could be maintained in low salinity zones and that the rate of community succession from the native to the invader was improved with the increase of salinity. Environmental Pollution. 2). Photosynthetic tolerance to non‐resource stress influences competition importance and intensity in an invaded estuary. As some planted P. australis died, we replaced the dead ramets with additional ramets; in late May, we found that all of the replacement plants of P. australis had survived. On the other hand, at low salinities P. australis produced more shoots per gram of rhizome tissue than Please check your email for instructions on resetting your password. A t‐test was used to analyze the difference between the RNE value and zero. Here, we developed and evaluated transgenic rice lines with a single Salt Responsive Protein 3-1 (SaSRP3-1) gene as well as pyramids with two-genes SaSRP3-1 and Vacuolar H +-ATPase subunit c1 (SaVHAc1) derived from a halophyte grass Spartina alterniflora L. for salt tolerance at seedling, vegetative, and reproductive stages. 2006). 2006). Environmental Science and Pollution Research. 1). Thus, this stress tolerator gains the competitive superiority in high salinity conditions where the growth rate of P. australis is low (Figs. 2013). The significance level was set at 5% (as in the other experiments). | In recent years, the sea level has risen ca. Spartina plants have a salt gland and thus can excrete excess salt on the leaf face (Levering and Thomson 1971, Wang et al. Spartina alterniflora (Spartina) is the only halophyte in the salt marsh. Compared with rice, high salt stress highly induced the expression of stress response, protein modification and redox-related gene expression and greatly inhibited translation in Spartina. 2020 Feb 20;42(2):194-211. doi: 10.16288/j.yczz.19-250. Lowercase letters indicate significant differences of RNE between two plants. Synergic effect of salinity and zinc stress on growth and photosynthetic responses of the cordgrass, Habitat selection and population interactions: the search for mechanism, Tidal regime, salinity and salt marsh plant zonation, Habitat heterogeneity influences restoration efficacy: implications of a habitat-specific management regime for an invaded marsh, The resource-ratio hypothesis of plant succession, Constraints and tradeoffs: toward a predictive theory of competition and succession, Seagrass-salinity interactions: physiological mechanisms used by submersed marine angiosperms for a life at sea, Salt tolerance underlies the cryptic invasion of North American salt marshes by an introduced haplotype of the common reed, Effects of environmental gradients on the performances of four dominant plants in a Chinese saltmarsh: implications for plant zonation, Effects of growing conditions on the growth of and interactions between salt marsh plants: implications for invasibility of habitats, A new index of interspecific competition for replacement and additive designs, How organisms partition habitats: different types of community organization can produce identical patterns, Effects of soil nutrient heterogeneity on intraspecific competition in the invasive, clonal plant. Moving from the dike to the seaward side of Dongtan salt marsh, the soil pore water salinity gradually increased from ca. Eight quadrats were chosen to transplant S. alterniflora in mid‐April, and one quadrat was planted with 36 ramets of S. alterniflora spaced at 0.4‐m intervals. 2010). Because the image is small, the polynomial method was used for all correction models, followed by the acquisition of optimal bands through PCA analysis and false‐color processing (used for artificial interpretation). After S. alterniflora colonized the north zone of Dongtan marsh, this invader not only spread into mudflats without the natives but also displaced native plants in the high salinity zones (Figs. Learn about our remote access options, School of Human Settlements and Civil Engineering, Xi′an Jiaotong University, 28 Xianning West Road, Xi′an 710049 China, Institute of Water Resources and Hydro-electric Engineering, Xi'an University of Technology, 5 Jinhua South Road, Xi′an 710048 China, Coastal Ecosystems Research Station of the Yangtze River estuary, Ministry of Education Key Laboratory for Biodiversity Science and Ecological Engineering, Institute of Biodiversity Science, Fudan University, 220 Handan Road, Shanghai 200433 China, Shanghai Academy of Environmental Sciences, 508 Qinzhou Road, Shanghai 200233 China, School of Life Sciences, Shanghai Key Laboratory of Urbanization and Ecological Restoration, East China Normal University, 500 Dongchuan Road, Shanghai 200241 China. In response to this increase, the spread of Spartina spp. 2006a, b). Dramatically, they can reciprocally invade. 2010, Corbin and D'Antonio 2011). An ADF isolated from a monocot halophyte, Spartina alterniflora (SaADF2), imparted significantly higher level of drought and salinity tolerance when expressed in rice than its rice homologue OsADF2. Working off-campus? Combined Effects of Global Climate Suitability and Regional Environmental Variables on the Distribution of an Invasive Marsh Species Spartina alterniflora. Similarly, there were four rows in each mixture quadrat and eight ramets in each row. These examples suggest the importance of environmental conditions on interspecific competition between new arrivals and native plants. However, there are no published studies to date on intraspecific variation in salt toler-ance in P. hemitomon, and the information on intra-specific variation in salt tolerance in S. alterniflora is In addition, Chen et al. The shoreline elevation is 100 cm. Moreover, the native had a high growth rate and therefore exhibited a competitive dominance over the invader at low salinity of ca. Moreover, the invader had no dead ramet. We then cleaned the underground plant structures with water. 2011, Zhou et al. The ramets of one plant was surrounded by those of another plant species, with the exception of the ramets in the mixture quadrat edge row. Epub 2012 Jan 28. 2006). This range of salinity (0–20‰) was chosen because the literatures have documented that P. australis is stenohaline and that its spread is facilitated by decreases of salinity in Spartina marshes (Vasquez et al. Because the salinity of the mudflats in Dongtan marsh is favorable for S. alterniflora growth (Figs. In this case study, the results obtained by the pot and field experiments demonstrate that (1) excellent competitors and non‐resource stress tolerators can share preferences for their most preferred habitat type, and their interspecific competition can occur in both favorable and unfavorable non‐resource conditions; (2) at any level of a non‐resource stress, if a plant can grow rapidly, it has a competitive advantage and the non‐resource stress can change plant growth rate and thus affect its competitiveness; and therefore (3) a new arrival with a high tolerance to major non‐resource stress factors can outcompete the natives and consequently change vegetation pattern in physiologically stressful ecosystems. However, the molecular basis of its high salt tolerance remains elusive. The salinity in the area adjacent to the tidal creek is lower due to the water from tidal subsidies, and the salinity distal to the tidal creek is higher due to the evaporation of water from the soil. Epub 2018 Jun 28. Therefore, S. alterniflora suffers relatively little damage from high salinity. Moreover, as a competitor, P. australis could dominate low salinity habitats and persist in high salinity habitats (Figs. Salt-tolerance strategy of two halophyte species: Spartina alterniflora and Suaeda fruticosa. Journal of Geophysical Research: Biogeosciences. Integrated community theory predicts that local environments are biological filters that determine the survival of new arrivals and thus structure a pool of plant species based on physiological tolerances (Christopher et al. We collected the aboveground parts of the plants in each quadrat and measured the soil pore water salinity. Native and non-native halophytes resiliency against sea-level rise and saltwater intrusion. Hybrids are spreading rapidly throughout the Bay, potentially altering the estuary The performance of P. australis significantly decreased along the salinity gradient (Fig. 2006, Wang et al.