Musk deer (Moschus spp.) Himalayan Musk Deer (Moschus leucogaster) is a species of genus Moschus of the family Moschidae. Groves, C., W. Yingxiang, P. Grubb. HBTL Catalogue and Brochure can be downloaded here and here Animals with bilateral symmetry have dorsal and ventral sides, as well as anterior and posterior ends. Promoting and marketing locally producedCertified Wildlife Friendly® products including beautiful handmade papers, woven nettle and hemp fabric and products,and essential oils, have greatly benefited marginalized community groups, helping them to fight poverty and improve their standard of living, while protecting the extraordinary biodiversity of the region. at http://www.iucnredlist.org/details/13897. © Copyright 2015. Plummer, J. Abstract . Established in 1964, the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species has evolved to become the world’s most comprehensive information source on the global conservation status of animal, fungi and plant species. And it also has been listed as EN by the red list of China’s vertebrates. Read More. 2009. Although both sexes have long upper canines, the males' grow longer, up to 7 to 10 cm. Traps kill not only the desired males, but also females and young deer. Accessed January 16, 2021 at https://animaldiversity.org/accounts/Moschus_leucogaster/. The species is nocturnal, crepuscular, and elu-sive, making direct observation of habitat use and behavior difficult. Selection of latrine sites by Himalayan musk deer (Moschus leucogaster) in Neshyang Valley, Annapurna Conservation Area, Nepal. Himalayan or white-bellied musk deer (Moschus leucogaster): found in the central Himalayas 11 Interesting facts about deer musk Here are some interesting facts about deer musk as well as about the deer who produce it. (Timmins and Duckworth, 2008). (Nyambayar, et al., 2008), Himalayan musk deer attempt to conceal themselves within vegetation to avoid predators. A community forestry program intervened and initiated the incorporation of a sustainability plan which outlined the harvestable quantity of non-timber forest products on a yearly basis as well as guidelines for responsible harvesting practices which were adopted. The species is listed as an Endangered (EN) species by the IUCN red list of threatened animals. (Aryal, 2005; Green, 1978; Nyambayar, et al., 2008), Himalayan musk deer weigh around 11 to 18 kg and are 86 to 100 cm in length. As a result, males mark their territories by rubbing their caudal gland against vegetation. Green, M. 1978. Moschus leucogaster. "Moschus leucogaster" March 15, 2009 However, musk deer establish and repeatedly use the same latrines for defecation. Wildlife Friendly Enterprise Network. The are no known adverse effects of Himalayan musk deer on humans. This mountainous species is accustomed to navigating moderately to very steep slopes. They are also alerted danger through their good sense of hearing. We conducted transect surveys in central Nuristan and confirmed the presence of musk deer Moschus cupreus > 60 years after the last documented observation of the species in Afghanistan. ("Family Moschidae", 2009; "Musk Deer", 2009; Aryal, 2005), Himalayan musk deer are herbivores and feed on what is seasonally available. Additionally, Himalayan musk deer are sought by local people for their fur and meat, which is considered a delicacy. at http://arts.anu.edu.au/grovco/GrovesWangGrubb.pdf. Accessed The white-bellied musk deer or Himalayan musk deer (Moschus leucogaster) is a musk deer species occurring in the Himalayas of Nepal, Bhutan, India, Pakistan and China.It is listed as endangered on the IUCN Red List because of overexploitation resulting in a probable serious population decline. Nyambayar, B., H. Mix, K. Tsytsulina. 46, No. Accessed Creature Profile . Himalayan musk deer have a distinctive bounding gait. Es ist an den südlichen Hängen des Himalayas im nordwestlichen und nordöstlichen Indien, in Nepal und Bhutan verbreitet. The species is nocturnal, crepuscular, and elusive, making direct observation of habitat use and behavior difficult. Image of china, animal, moschiferus - 104642627 Nepal The Conflict. Himalayan musk deer (Moschus leucogaster; hereafter musk deer) are endangered as a result of poaching and habitat loss. Timmins, R., J. Duckworth. Nepal. 2009. communicates by producing scents from special gland(s) and placing them on a surface whether others can smell or taste them, breeding is confined to a particular season, reproduction that includes combining the genetic contribution of two individuals, a male and a female. Taxonomy of Musk Deer, Genus Moschus (Moschidae, Mammalia). Moschus leucogaster was separated from Moschus chrysogaster based on skull size proportions, though it is difficult to distinguish one species from another by sight. Though we edit our accounts for accuracy, we cannot guarantee all information in those accounts. Moschustiere (Moschus) Art: Himalaya-Moschustier Wissenschaftlicher Name; Moschus leucogaster: Hodgson, 1839 Das Himalaya-Moschustier (Moschus leucogaster) ist eine Art der Moschustiere (Moschidae). at http://books.google.com/books?id=726qparJDBgC&pg=PA56&lpg=PA56&dq=himalayan+musk+deer&source=bl&ots=tbhxfDClJ_&sig=_1yJ8yJ2YH9e4Y1Y2lJdF1QT7hc&hl=en&ei=CNK9Sa_qMoTFnQfe2LihBg&sa=X&oi=book_result&resnum=5&ct=result#PPA62,M1. The musk gland attracts females during mating season, and the caudal gland is used to mark territory. 2010. As a result forest coverage has increased substantially over the last 10 years improving habitat for wildlife. are members of the only extant genus of the family Moschidae. In view of its solitary behaviour and need for dense cover, the musk deer probably relies chiefly on olfaction for communication. One to two young are typically born between May and June and nurse from their mother for about 2 months. ("Family Moschidae", 2009; Green, 1978; "Himalayan musk deer (Moschus moschiferus moschiferus)", 2010), Himalayan musk deer typically live for 10 to 14 years in the wild. Care 4 Nature. Contributor Galleries Function i. Greater crown cover and shrub diversity were associated with the presence of musk deer whereas tree height, diameter and diversity were weakly correlated. found in the oriental region of the world. defends an area within the home range, occupied by a single animals or group of animals of the same species and held through overt defense, display, or advertisement. Accessed March 15, 2009 Additional support has come from the Marisla Foundation, UM College of Literature, Science, and the Arts, Museum of Zoology, and Information and Technology Services. 1, pp. Because Himalayan musk deer roam at elevations higher than 2,500 m, their habitat predominantly consists of vegetation typical of alpine regions. A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference (3rd ed), "Himalayan musk deer (Moschus moschiferus moschiferus)", 2010, "Musk deer facing risk of extinction", 2000, http://www.ultimateungulate.com/Cetartiodactyla/Moschidae.html, http://www.arkive.org/himalayan-musk-deer/moschus-leucogaster, http://dezi9or.com/c4n/wildindia/muskdeer/description.htm, http://www.burmalibrary.org/reg.burma/archives/200010/msg00023.html, http://www.itnc.org/FinalReportonMuskdeerManang.pdf, http://books.google.com/books?id=726qparJDBgC&pg=PA56&lpg=PA56&dq=himalayan+musk+deer&source=bl&ots=tbhxfDClJ_&sig=_1yJ8yJ2YH9e4Y1Y2lJdF1QT7hc&hl=en&ei=CNK9Sa_qMoTFnQfe2LihBg&sa=X&oi=book_result&resnum=5&ct=result#PPA62,M1, http://arts.anu.edu.au/grovco/GrovesWangGrubb.pdf, http://www.bucknell.edu/msw3/browse.asp?id=14200198, © 2020 Regents of the University of Michigan. January 18, 2011 March 15, 2009 Himalayan musk deer (Moschus leucogaster; hereafter musk deer) are endangered as a result of poaching and habitat loss. The species is nocturnal, crepuscular, and elusive, making direct observation of habitat use and behavior difficult. ("Family Moschidae", 2009; "Musk Deer", 2009; Aryal, 2005; "Himalayan musk deer (Moschus moschiferus moschiferus)", 2010), Moschus leucogaster was once considered the same species as Moschus chrysogaster, as both species have similar life history traits and characteristics. They can jump as far as 6 m, which is advantageous when being chased by slower predators. Online Burma/Myanmar Library. forest biomes are dominated by trees, otherwise forest biomes can vary widely in amount of precipitation and seasonality. Endothermy is a synapomorphy of the Mammalia, although it may have arisen in a (now extinct) synapsid ancestor; the fossil record does not distinguish these possibilities. In otherwords, Europe and Asia and northern Africa. Around 25 g of musk can be extracted from a single musk sac. Male Himalayan musk deer are quite territorial of other males and fight those which attempt to enter their territory. 2005. "Himalayan musk deer (Moschus moschiferus moschiferus)" Click below to learn about how we are helping. A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference (3rd ed). March 17, 2009 The dull brown color of their coats minimizes their chance of detection. Track our progress by signing up for our occasional news blast. Synapomorphy of the Bilateria. (Groves, et al., 1995; Wilson and Reeder, 2005), During the mating season, male Himalayan musk deer become anxious, competitive, and eat little. Common name: Himalayan Musk Deer: Latin name: Moschus leucogaster Hodgson: Local name: Kastura: IUCN/WPA/Indian status: Endangered/locally common: Social unit: Solitary, except when female is with young: Size / weight: HBL: 86-100 cm, HAS: 50 cm. However, musk deer establish and repeatedly use the same latrines for defecation. The canines break easily, but tooth growth is continuous. at http://www.ultimateungulate.com/Cetartiodactyla/Moschidae.html. Photo about White-bellied musk deer or Himalayan musk deer Moschus leucogaster. Uniquely, the females have a single pair of mammae. Accordingly, they eat grasses, forbs, mosses, lichen, twigs, shoots, and plant leaves. at http://www.bucknell.edu/msw3/browse.asp?id=14200198. On the issue of illegal wildlife trade, community forest user groups can now levy and enforce sanctions for illegal hunting, killing or harvesting of wildlife. Solukhumbu Bezirk. Certified Wildlife Friendly® Enterprises that Help Conserve Himalayan Musk Deer, Click below to learn about how we are helping. Disclaimer: They are sandy brown in color, with slightly darker rumps and limbs. Although many musk deer reside in one of several protected areas, poaching activities continue to increase as musk becomes more valuable. "Family Moschidae" Merkmale. Dieses Stockfoto: Himalayan Musk Deer (Moschuss Leucogaster) im Lebensraum. Component of the ubiquinol-cytochrome c reductase complex (complex III or cytochrome b-c1 complex) that is part of the mitochondrial respiratory chain. (Aryal, 2005; "Himalayan musk deer (Moschus moschiferus moschiferus)", 2010). Accessed Classification, To cite this page: They depend on forests for timber, fuel wood, fodder, and collect non-timber forest products including medicinal and aromatic plants and sell them to the market as a source of income. Grants DRL 0089283, DRL 0628151, DUE 0633095, DRL 0918590, and DUE 1122742. Accessed Himalayan musk deer (Moschus leucogaster); hereafter musk deer) are endangered as a result of poaching and habitat loss. 2020. The geographic range of the Himalayan musk deer has sharply declined in recent years due to predation, trapping by humans, and habitat destruction. Himalayan BioTrade (HBTL) The White-bellied musk deer or Himalayan musk deer (Moschus leucogaster) is a musk deer species occurring in the Himalayas of Nepal, Bhutan, India, Pakistan and China. (On-line). Accessed An animal that eats mainly plants or parts of plants. mtDNA confirms the presence of Moschus leucogaster (Ruminantia, Moschidae) in Gaurishankar Conservation Area, Nepal Musk deer (genus Moschus), an endangered mammal, is not only of great concern for its conservation, but also of great interest to understand its taxonomic and phylogenetic associations in Nepal.The aim of this study was to identify the taxonomic status of musk deer … Tweet; Description: Rare, elusive and endangered, the Musk Deer is one of the most fascinating species of Deer found in the southern slopes of Himalayas. Himalayan musk deer (Moschus leucogaster ; hereafter musk deer) are endangered as a result of poaching and habitat loss. having body symmetry such that the animal can be divided in one plane into two mirror-image halves. animals that use metabolically generated heat to regulate body temperature independently of ambient temperature. Moschus leucogaster – Himalayan Musk deer. 2008. Job creation and income generating opportunities at a local level, where forest sustainability, social, and economical issues are a factor, are now closely monitored and product quality is controlled from harvest to finished product. Tel: +977-1-4386690 (in Nepal), “Wildlife Friendly® is a brand consumers trust to make choices that conserve nature - priceless!”- Dr. David Wilkie. ("Family Moschidae", 2009; Aryal, 2005; Nyambayar, et al., 2008), Parental investment is minimal in Himalayan musk deer. The species is nocturnal, crepuscular, and elusive, making direct observation of habitat use and behavior difficult. (Aryal, 2005; "Himalayan musk deer (Moschus moschiferus moschiferus)", 2010) Himalayan musk deer mate between November and January, although some females may not mate until March. Additionally, Himalayan musk deer are preyed on by leopard, lynx, yellow-throated marten, red fox, grey wolf, wild dogs, and occasionally birds of prey. Acia Theriologica Sinica, 15/3: 181-197. Ungulates of the World. Although the reason for this behavior is unknown, it is increasingly practiced during the mating season. Aryal, A. Abweichend von den Hirschen weisen sie eine Gallenblase auf und das Euter der Weibc… Himalayan musk deer make a double hiss sound when alarmed and may even scream when wounded. At market, 1 kg of musk can be worth $45,000 USD, a figure which increases as species populations decrease. More Taxa Info; Guides; Places; Site Stats; Help; Video Tutorials; Log In or Sign Up Characteristics; Distribution and habitat; Ecology and behaviour - FP4DBN aus der Alamy-Bibliothek mit Millionen von Stockfotos, Illustrationen und Vektorgrafiken in hoher Auflösung herunterladen. The gestation period is 185 to 195 days. Himalayan birch (Betula utilis) dominated forest, mixed Himalayan fir (Abies spectabilis) and birch forest were preferred over pure Himalayan fir and blue pine (Pinus wallichiana) forest. Iteroparous animals must, by definition, survive over multiple seasons (or periodic condition changes). Johns Hopkins University: Johns Hopkins University Press. Himalayan musk deer reside in the Himalayan mountain range, particularly within the countries of Bhutan, India, Nepal, and a small part of China. Accessed Help us improve the site by taking our survey. The gestation period is 185 to 195 days. They can jump as far as 6 m, which is advantageous when being chased by slower predators ("Family Moschidae", 2009; Aryal, 2005; Nyambayar, et al., 2008), The male musk sac is highly sought after by humans, and hunting and trapping have caused declines in Himalayan musk deer populations. "Musk Deer" at http://www.arkive.org/himalayan-musk-deer/moschus-leucogaster. Verbreitungsgebiet des Himalaya-Moschustiers. The Animal Diversity Web is an educational resource written largely by and for college students. While protecting their territory, which encompasses the home ranges of several females, males fight one another using their long canine teeth as weapons. April 25, 2009 at http://www.itnc.org/FinalReportonMuskdeerManang.pdf. and across multiple seasons (or other periods hospitable to reproduction). Musk deer can refer to any one, or all seven, of the species that make up Moschus, the only extant genus of the family Moschidae. January 18, 2011 ARKive: Images of Life on Earth. Moschus leucogaster (Himalayan musk deer) Status. Moschustiere (Moschidae) sind eine mit den Hornträgern (Bovidae), also mit Antilopen, Ziegenartigen und Rindern, verwandte Familie der Paarhufer. offspring are produced in more than one group (litters, clutches, etc.) 2000. They urinate elsewhere. Large birds of prey also occasionally kill young musk deer. 2005. Members of this species are thought to use latrine sites and other strong-smelling secretions to mark their territory. Around 6 months of age, young Himalayan musk deer are weaned and able to consume food from their surroundings, becoming completely independent. UK: ITNC. The musk produced by this genus of primitive deer is highly valued for its cosmetic and alleged pharmaceutical properties, and can fetch U.S.$45,000 per kilogram on the international market. Himalayan Musk Deer (Moschus chrysogaster), Sagarmatha National Park / Nepal This shy Himalayan mammal species is listed by IUCN as Endangered because of a probable serious population decline. ADW doesn't cover all species in the world, nor does it include all the latest scientific information about organisms we describe. The ventral side of their bodies ranges from gray to white. (On-line). (On-line). March 20, 2009 Convergent in birds. Email: firstname.lastname@example.org Identification; Status, Habitat and Habits; References; Moschus leucogaster – Himalayan Musk Deer Mammalia > Artiodactyla > Moschidae > Moschus. Local communities are highly dependent on forests for their daily livelihood support.  Ursprünglich nahm man an, dass sie mit den Hirschen verwandt sind: In älterer Literatur wurden sie oft als Moschushirsche bezeichnet und als ursprüngliche Unterfamilie der Hirsche angesehen. Cite this page along with its URL as: Bayani, A. Local communities are highly dependent on forests for their daily livelihood support. (Nyambayar, et al., 2008), Himalayan musk deer are solitary, terricolous creatures that usually try to conceal themselves in vegetation. Taxon Information Accessed Accessed Because it is difficult to distinguish Himalayan musk deer from similar species such as Moschus chrysogaster, the exact rates of their population declines are debatable. (2018). Some cervids, including the Himalayan musk deer, tend to designate certain areas as latrines, choosing a spot used only for deification. Pp. A substance that provides both nutrients and energy to a living thing. gonochoric/gonochoristic/dioecious (sexes separate), body parts are source of valuable material, Status and distribution of Himalayan Musk deer ‘Moschus chrysogaster’ in Annapurna Conservation Area of Manang District, Nepal, Mammal Species of the World. having the capacity to move from one place to another. Threats to native wildlife include unsustainable use of non-timber forest products which degrades habitat upon which wildlife depend. Jaclyn Plummer (author), Northern Michigan University, John Bruggink (editor), Northern Michigan University, Gail McCormick (editor), Animal Diversity Web Staff. CITES lists the small number of Himalayan musk deer that inhabit China in Appendix II and all other Himalayan musk deer in Appendix I. Himalayan musk deer are threatened by hunting, habitat fragmentation, habitat reduction, and habitat destruction. March 17, 2009 In other words, India and southeast Asia. Himalayan Musk Deer. In addition, male Himalayan musk deer have a musk sac (between their reproduction organs and umbilicus) and a caudal gland (at the base of their tail), both of which play a role in communication. Himalayan Musk Deer (Moschus leucogaster) Population Trend: Decreasing. During this time, the young remain in hiding, independent of their mothers except when feeding. They are primarily active during the morning and evening hours, often when feeding. 56-64 in Threatened Deer. ("Family Moschidae", 2009; "Musk Deer", 2009; Green, 1978; "Himalayan musk deer (Moschus moschiferus moschiferus)", 2010), Himalayan musk deer are sedentary, occupying small home ranges of up 0.22 km^2, though males defend a much larger territory. This secretion also deters rivals during the breeding season. These efforts are helping to create sustainable supply chains that will benefit these communities for years to come while giving consumers high quality natural products and improving the conditions of key wildlife habitat. 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