etiotropic treatment meaning

The nutritional factor (lack of dietary fiber in the diet, and frequent use of chemical preservatives and dyes) has a certain value in the development of pathology. For etiotropic therapy of helminthiasis the following groups of drugs: protivopolozhnye (albendazole, levamisole, Beenie hydroxynaphthoate, piperazine, Pyrantel, etc. As well as amoxicillin, amoxiclav is not effective in the treatment of infections caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The pain most often occurs before bowel movement, and decreases after bowel movements. When the water content in the gel decreases, the sputum viscosity increases and the movement of the bronchial secretion toward the oropharynx slows or even stops. At the same time, depletion of the patient develops rather quickly due to a violation of the absorption of nutrients. Stool irregularities are varied. It should be remembered that in recent years, the number of drug-resistant strains of pneumococci and other pathogens has significantly increased, which significantly complicates the selection of an adequate antibacterial agent for etiotropic treatment of community-acquired pneumonia. In most cases, with an adequate choice of antibiotics, 7-10 days of its use is sufficient. Cal more often liquid, often offensive, having the form of meat slop. When administered orally, the expectorant effect in adults occurs 24-48 hours after the start of treatment and is achieved by applying 8-16 mg of bromhexine 3 times a day. If patients with hospital pneumonia are more likely to have an anaerobic infection, a combination of cephalosporin II-III generations with modern macrolides or a combination of aminoglycosides with ciprofloxacin or "respiratory" fluoroquinolones is advisable. Meanwhile, the tactics of treatment of sigmoiditis depends largely on the cause of the disease. The table shows the most important modifying factors that increase the risk of infection with antibiotic-resistant strains of pneumococci, Gram-negative bacteria and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The speed of this movement becomes even less if it thines out the layer of the liquid layer (sol), which to a certain extent prevents the sputum from adhering to the walls of the bronchi. Treatment plan 1. His clinic is very similar to ischemic and ulcerative colitis. In other words, the effectiveness of ampioxa against gram-negative pathogens in most cases is not so high. With a long course of chronic non-ulcer sigmoiditis, the asthenovegetative syndrome develops: fatigue, irritability, poor sleep. Patients complain of frequent painful urge to defecate - tenesmus. The incubation period ranges from several hours to a week - most often two to three days. Crohn's disease is characterized by damage to all layers of the intestinal wall, therefore the pathology is complicated by the development of internal and external fistulas. Pain syndrome with proctosigmoiditis is cramping in nature. It is comprised of etiotropic meaning curing devoted to eliminating the causative factor effect of this condition and pathogenetic implying a restoration of the functional activity that participates in erection appearance. Oxacillin is known to be one of the effective anti-staphylococcal drugs, demonstrating its activity towards penicillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus (PRSA), which is resistant to ampicillin and other "unprotected" aminopenicillins. For example, in patients with OHMK, patients after thoracoabdominal operations or with the presence of a nasogastric tube, when the aspiration of the oropharyngeal microflora is the main pathogenetic factor in the development of the oropharyngeal pneumonia, the pathogens of hospital pneumonia are anaerobic microorganisms (Bacteroides spp., Peptostreptoxoccus spp., Fusohacterium nucleatum, Prevotella spp. ), Oral cephalosporins of the third generation (cefotaxime, ceftriaxone, etc. If necessary, the parenteral form of erythromycin may be used, which is administered intravenously in a jet or as an infusion at a dosage of 0.2-0.5 g 4 times a day. Chronic sigmoiditis occurs with periods of remission when the signs of inflammation subside. For the treatment of anemia caused by intestinal bleeding, iron supplements are administered intravenously (Polyfer) or intramuscularly (Ferrum-lek). Thus, the ability of unimpeded removal of sputum from the respiratory tract is primarily determined by its rheological properties, the water content in both phases of the bronchial secretion (gel and sol), and by the intensity and coordination of the activity of the cilia of the ciliated epithelium. In patients with diabetes mellitus, chronic alcoholism, in which pneumonia is most often caused by gram-negative flora (klebsiella, hemophilic rod, legionella, etc. Fecal masses at the same time contain a large amount of pus, and may have a fetid character. Usual dose for adults with oral administration is 0.5-1.0 g 3 times a day, and for parenteral (intravenous or intramuscular) administration - 1 g every 8-12 hours. As mentioned above, in most cases, the empirical etiotropic treatment of pneumonia involves the use of one of the listed effective antibiotics (monotherapy with amoxicillin, modern macrolides, cephalosporins of II-III generations, "respiratory" fluoroquinolones). Moxifloxacin, in addition, exhibits activity against non-spore-forming anaerobes (B. Fragilis, etc.). Acetylcysteine (ACC, flumucil) is an N-derivative of the natural amino acid of L-cysteine. ), "Respiratory" fluoroquinolones (levofloxacin, moxifloxacin), "Protected" ureidopenicillins (picarcillin / clavulanate, piperacillin / tazobactam), Aminopenicillins (amoxicillin, amoxiclav, ampicillin / sulbactam), Cephalosporins of the first generation (cefazolin), Cephalosporins of II-IV generations (cefuroxime, cefotaxime, ceftriaxone, cefazidime, cefepime, etc. For pneumonia of mild severity, in particular for the treatment of patients at home, the use of an oral preparation of the second generation cefuroxime (Ketocepha, Zinacef) is recommended, which has a high activity against pneumococci and certain gram-negative bacteria - Haemophilus influenzae, Moraxella catarrhalis, E. Coli and Drug taken in a dose of 250-500 mg 2 times a day after meals. TREATMENT PLAN 2. With community-acquired pneumonia, cephalosporins of the second and third generations are usually used. are prescribed. ), Aminoglycosides II and III generations (gentamicin, amikacin), Macrolides (clarithromycin, roxithromycin, azithromycin, spiramycin), Cephalosporins III and IV generations (ceftriaxone, cefotaxime, cefepime), "Protected" aminopenicillins (amoksiklav, ampitsipin / supbaktam, etc. are clickable links to these studies. At the same time, a test is conducted for the sensitivity of pathogenic microorganisms to drugs. Perhaps their combination with aminoglycosides II and III generations. This is due, primarily, to the fact that it is in the S-shaped sigmoid colon that the final formation of feces takes place. Crohn's disease Crohn's disease is a segmental lesion of the gastrointestinal tract of unknown etiology, characterized by the appearance of inflammatory infiltrates, the formation of deep longitudinal ulcers, fistulas and cicatricial contractions. As a supportive treatment, delaying the progression of the disease, preparations of vitamins A, E, riboflavin are used. Surgical treatment is carried out according to strict indications, such as: Treatment of ischemic sigmoiditis depends on the degree of vascular insufficiency. Ampicillin also belongs to the group of aminopepicillins and, in the spectrum of its action, resembles amoxicillin, affecting gram-positive and, to a lesser extent, gram-negative flora, including streptococcus, pneumococcus, Escherichia coli, Proteus, moraxella, etc. The use of antibiotics for abscessed pneumonia should only be parenteral and in most cases continue for at least 6-8 weeks. Then they talk about erosive sigmoiditis . Most strains of staphylococci are not sensitive to ampicillin. As a result, in the lumen of the small bronchi, mucous and muco-purulent plugs are formed, which with great difficulty are removed only by a strong expiratory flow of air during bouts of excruciating coughing. In this case, symptoms such as fragmented feces ("sheep's feces"), a feeling of incomplete emptying of the intestine after stool, weeping, and itching in the anus are added. Crohn's disease with an isolated lesion of the large intestine occurs, as a rule, in a chronic form, with periodic exacerbations. The most commonly used treatment regimens are: The combination of cephalosporins with macrolides increases their antipneumococcal effect. Sigmoiditis caused by insufficient blood circulation in the intestine (ischemic sigmoiditis). By positively affecting the blood coagulation system, heparin improves blood flow and microvessel lung canal, reducing edema of bronchial mucosa and improving their drainage function. parenteral amoxiclav in combination with parenteral macrolides (spiramycin, clarithromycin, erythromycin); cephalosporins of the third generation (cefotaxime or ceftriaxone) in combination with parenteral macrolides; cephalosporins of the IV generation (cefepime) in combination with macrolides; monotherapy with respiratory fluoroquinolones (iv levofloxacin). During this time, the treatment of pneumonia with antibiotics, including the appointment of alternative drugs, in most cases, community-acquired pneumonia is unreasonable, since it is proved that even with adequate treatment, fever can persist for 2-4 days, and leukocytosis 4-5 days. ), M-holinolitikov (atroventa) and intravenous infusion of 2.4% solution of euphyllin. In severe cases, stool frequency can reach 20-40 times a day, and the amount of blood secreted - up to 100 - 300 ml / day. He is very good at the type A influenza. contributes to an increase in the water content in the gel layer and, accordingly, to reduce the viscosity of sputum. (2020). Then they switch to diet number 4, which, when the effects of inflammation subside, is expanded to options 4b and 4c. Much less often, circulatory insufficiency of the sigmoid colon can be caused by congenital malformations of the vessels, their damage in systemic diseases of the connective tissue (periarteritis nodosa, etc.) They show a high activity against gram-positive and gram-negative aerobic and anaerobic microflora, including Pseudomonas aeruginosa, acipetobacter, enterobacteria, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella, Proteus, Salmonella, Hemophilus rod, Enterococcus, Staphylococcus, Listeria, Mycobacteria, etc. In chronic sigmoiditis during remission to prevent constipation, foods that are rich in dietary fiber are included in the diet. Etiotropic treatment Sigmoiditis caused by intestinal infections. This pathology is called perisigmoiditis . Indications for hospitalization of patients with community-acquired pneumonia (European Respiratory Society, 1997). When it is involved in the inflammatory process, the disease occurs in the form of proctosigmoiditis, or in the form of a more common form of the disease (in 25% of patients with ulcerative colitis, the disease affects the entire large intestine). If suspicion of the role of Gram-negative microflora in the genesis of abscessed pneumonia, including Pseudomonas aeruginosa, it is advisable to use so-called antipseudomonasal ß-lactam antibiotics (cefazidime, cefepime, imipepema, meropenem) in combination with parenteral macrolides and ciprofloxacin. The drug is usually well tolerated. According to modern ideas, most patients with uncomplicated community-acquired pneumonia can be treated at home. Extended options 4b and 4c provide for the normal content of all elements. The most characteristic symptoms of ulcerative colitis are diarrhea and intestinal bleeding. Thus, cold (below 15 degrees Celsius) and hot dishes are excluded, food is boiled or steamed. In 80% of patients, multiple deep non-scarring anal fissures are formed. Levofloxacin (Tavanic) - a preparation of the third generation - is used in a dose of 250-500 mg. Once a day for ingestion and 0.5-1.0 g per day for intravenous administration. According to domestic and most European recommendations, aminopenicillins (amoxicillin, amoxicillin / clavulonic acid, amoxicles) and modern macrolides (clarithromycin, azithromycin, roxithromycin, spiramycin, etc.) In recent years, the drug is preferred because, due to the long half-life, it can be administered once a day at a dose of 1-2 g. Cefotaxime is somewhat inferior to ceftriaxone in action on Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Radiation sigmoiditis. In mild cases, you can reduce the daily dose to 8 mg 3 times a day, and in children younger than 6 years - up to 4 mg 3 times a day. Medicinal herbs have astringent, anti-inflammatory and analgesic effect, have a positive effect on intestinal motility, reduce flatulence. The exacerbation of the disease, as a rule, is associated with: Inflammation of the sigmoid colon can occur with varying degrees of damage to its wall. Intestinal bleeding occurs in 80% of patients. 1, 2 and 3 Line Therapy of Erectile Dysfunction Treatment. The choice of the most effective of them depends on many factors, primarily on the accuracy of identification of the causative agent of pneumonia, its sensitivity to antibiotics and the early onset of adequate treatment of pneumonia with antibiotics. In severe acute ischemia leading to intestinal necrosis, left-sided colectomy is performed. The essence of it is to identify certain types of bacteria that are present in the body. Recall that the most frequent pathogens of community-acquired pneumonia are: In this case, the share of pneumococcal infection accounts for more than half of cases of community-acquired pneumonia, and about 25% of pneumonia is caused by a hemophilic rod, moraxel or intracellular microorganisms. When the process is subsided, the patient is transferred to a common table with the exception of spicy, salty, fried, smoked dishes, spices and alcohol. Meropepem shows a higher activity in relation to gram-negative pathogens, especially enterobacteria, hemophilic rod, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, acipetobacter, etc. In the absence of effect, carbapepam monotherapy is indicated. Heparin influences the rheological properties of sputum, thus rendering mucolytic action. In severe pneumonia, which is associated with high mortality, the patient should be admitted to the intensive care unit or intensive care unit (ICU). With the low effectiveness of such treatment of pneumonia, alternative drugs are prescribed: It should be remembered that the effectiveness of the treatment of pneumonia with antibiotics is evaluated, first of all, by the clinical state of the patient and the results of some laboratory tests that, when choosing an adequate treatment for pneumonia, should improve in the next 48-72 hours. Poisoning with canned fish, meat and vegetables, Pneumonia - Treatment regimen and nutrition, Antibacterial drugs for the treatment of pneumonia, Fighting complications of acute pneumonia, Physiotherapy, exercise therapy, respiratory gymnastics with pneumonia, Sanatorium treatment and rehabilitation for pneumonia, On 0,25-0,5 2 times a day, regardless of food intake, 500 mg per day for 5 days, then ingestion for 5 more days, "Protected" aminopenicillins (amoksiklav, ampicillin / sulbactam, etc. In these cases, a thorough follow-up examination (repeated chest X-ray, bronchoscopy with obtaining material from the lower sections of the respiratory tract, computed tomography, etc. This combination "overlaps" almost the entire spectrum of possible causative agents of community-acquired pneumonia of severe course. During the period of exacerbation, diarrhea is most characteristic, and during remission, constipation or / and constipation alternating with diarrhea. is absolutely contraindicated. Modifying foktorov, increasing the risk of infection with certain pathogens (according to N. Cossiere et ai, 2000), Penicillin-resistant, drug-resistant pneumococci. Such drugs include non-absorbable drugs containing S-ASA (sulfasalazine, salofalk, calazopyridazin) and steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (Prednisolone). In these cases, the empirical treatment of moderate pneumonia begins with parenteral administration of the following antibacterial agents: If there is no effect or severe course of pneumonia, it is recommended to use one of the following combination therapy regimens: In all the above schemes, aminoglycosides II and III generations are included in the combined antimicrobial treatment of pneumonia. And E. Coli. In more severe cases, the surface layers of epithelial cells are destroyed, and more or less pronounced defects are formed. That is why if you suspect acute infectious sigmoiditis (fever, tenesmus, blood, pus or mucus in the feces), the use of antidiarrheal drugs (Imodium, etc.) Diet with sigmoiditis is based on a fractional diet (5-6 times a day). Pharmacotherapy (or drug therapy), the treatment of disease by drugs.
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