Le fait d'obtenir d'une personne le prélèvement de tissus, de cellules ou de produits de son corps contre un paiement, quelle qu'en soit la forme, est puni de cinq ans d'emprisonnement et de 75000 euros d'amende. Oddly enough, King said, this is exactly the number of people, 1167, who died during the year to donate their organs. Although China claimed to ban organ harvesting from prisoners in 2015, numerous independent studies have shown that such practices continue. All Rights Reserved, Parliamentary & Congressional Resolutions, International Coalition to End Organ Pillaging in China, 1.5 Million in 53 Countries Say ‘No’ to Organ Harvesting in China, Celebrating International Human Rights Day, Speech by Fiona Bruce MP, Chair of the Conservative Party Human Rights Committee, PRESS RELEASE: Stop Forced Organ Harvesting Bill of 2020 Introduced in the United States, WATCH: Sir Geoffrey Nice QC (China Tribunal Chair) speaks at 2020 Ministerial Side Event, WATCH: UK China Research Group host Sir Geoffrey Nice QC, Prof Martin Elliott and Hamid Sabi from the China Tribunal, UK Anti-Slavery Day Webinar: Tackling forced organ harvesting & organ trafficking, Forced Organ Harvesting from Prisoners of Conscience: the Intersection of Medical Advocacy and Medical Ethics by David Matas. It is important, according to him, to raise national awareness within the medical and political communities of the huge ethical problem that we have set before us. According to him, it is important to maintain this French ethical cultural exception. Human trafficking is the trade of humans for the purpose of forced labour, sexual slavery, or commercial sexual exploitation for the trafficker or others. In France, trafficking in human beings is defined in the Act of 5 August 2013. At that time, the CHU Montpellier team had been requested to train Chinese surgeons in organ transplantation. The question therefore is the origin of this source of readily available organs. Code pénal - Article 511-4. Frédérique Dumas, member of the National Assembly, initiated bill No. According to Boyer, tomorrow these principles will be violated by changing the system to allow the commercialization of the human body in all its aspects. In 2015 the Council of Europe introduced a new criminal law convention to address organ trafficking. Instead, the organ trade in China concerns, to a greater extent, prisoners of conscience who have committed no criminal offense. The bill was submitted to president of the legislature. Initiated by National Assembly Member Frédérique Dumas, bill No. According to various reports published by David Kilgour and David Matas, and by Ethan Gutmann, an American journalist, this organ surplus comes from Falun Gong prisoners of conscience who have been imprisoned by the hundreds of thousands in Chinese prisons since 1999. Human Trafficking in France. On 18 October 2019, France announced the adoption of a second national action plan against human trafficking, process led by the MIPROF (Interministerial mission for the protection of women against violence and the fight against human trafficking), working closely with associations. More recent events, such as the February 2017 Summit on Organ Trafficking hosted by the Pontifical Academy of Sciences in Vatican City, have also shed light on the state of the organ trade. Har­ri­son pre­tended he had no idea how the mi­grants got into his lorry and he was let off with a fine. According to Valérie Boyer, there is a general change of attitude towards the commercialization of the body in all areas. However, the debate on the family will lead to an opening up of the trading of the human body which would be a move backwards for French national ethics. Since 1980, the Chinese government has allowed the police to use, without any restriction whatsoever, the corpses of prisoners for organ transplants, with or without consent of families or individuals. Indeed the current regulations on the commercialization of the body in France … “The most serious case of transplant tourism is the case of China, because it goes hand in hand with the harvesting of organs from prisoners, especially of conscience, without ‘free and informed’ consent within the meaning of international law and of French law,” the bill states. Some migrants who could not pay their smugglers are held in debt bondage. We do not know how lucky we are in France from a public health point of view, in so far as we focus above all on treating the patient, whatever their income, and without any commercial considerations. “Through this and through official channels, it was explained to me that it would be a standard transplant with a complete organ, that everything would be ready for the day I arrived and the transplant would be done with a retransmission to save all the details, “said Professor Navarro. The bill’s explanatory statement highlighted the current situation with organ transplants in France. “Faced with the absence of sanctions from the European institutions to fight against these crimes, it is necessary to modify French domestic laws, in order to prevent French public and private health establishments from being made complicit in human rights violations of human organ transplantation,” the bill stated. The Council of Europe Convention against Trafficking in Human Organs was adopted by the Committee of Ministers of the Council of Europe on 9 July 2014. The Council of Europe Convention Against Trafficking in Human Organs. The conference gave the floor to professors and French surgeons. Additionally, some instances of human trafficking may fall under immigration or labor laws. Two important events take place in December. Organ Harvesting, “Recollections of Attending Master Li’s Lectures in China”, “Finland: Falun Gong Event in Front of Parliament and Chinese Embassy Warmly Received”, Oct. 8, 2020 | By Minghui correspondent Delong in France, Perpetrators Involved in Persecution of Falun Gong. It ravishes communities, endangers businesses, strains government institutions, and drags down the wider economy. PARIS—A panel discussion on organ transplant trafficking and tourism at the French National Assembly addressed the ethical issues involved in organ trafficking abroad, and, in particular, in China. 3316 to stop forced organ harvesting in countries such as China. Doctors then realized that they had to take these patients back into care by giving them anti-rejection drugs, and that it was sometimes necessary to do another transplant. In pole position, the kidney. French laws prohibit organ trafficking and provides for imprisonment of up to seven years and a fine of 100,000 euros, but transplant tourism to receive illegally sourced organs has nonetheless been a problem since the 1980s. But there is however a shortcoming in France regarding international complicity that poses an ethical problem in the country. Whether as country of origin, transit or destination for the victims, almost every State in the world is affected by this phenom… Rapid progress in medical science and technology has transformed organ transplantation, and kidney transplantation in particular, into a routine medical procedure practised in hospitals across the world. In addition, an independent people's tribunal focused on forced organ harvesting in China was set up in London and chaired by Sir Geoffrey Nice QC, who led the prosecution of Slobodan MiloÅ¡ević, former President of Serbia, at the UN’s International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia. The trade involves a network of human traffickers including mobile surgeons, brokers, patients, and sellers who meet for cla… Due to organ shortages, the waiting time for a transplant in the country is usually three years, and this waiting time increases each year. France is indeed one of the few countries in the world to have a law on bioethics, and a strictness in matters of transplantation that is extraordinarily little shared by other countries. In 1700 the term ‘white slavery’ was first recognized, which means the white girl and women they forcefully use to give drugs and use them for a sexual purpose. By the period of 1600, many other countries started participating in the European Slave Trade countries like France, Spain, North America, Sweden and many more. The French bill stated that several countries and regions have already amended their national legislation to curb transplant tourism to China, including Spain, Italy, Israel, and Taiwan. FRANCE 24 English – LIVE – International Breaking News & Top stories - 24/7 stream FRANCE 24 English 1,063 watching Live now Bride trafficking: Pakistani women sold off … He later learned that for an organ transplant in China, ten organs were often taken before finding the right one. Strasbourg, France. 9822 3 June 2003 Report Social, Health and Family Affairs Committee Rapporteur: Mrs Ruth-Gaby Vermot-Mangold, Switzerland, SOC Summary As the success of organ transplantation steadily increases, the gap between the supply and demand for organs continues to widen sharply. This may encompass providing a spouse in the context of forced marriage, or the extraction of organs or tissues, including for surrogacy and ova removal. Legal definition of trafficking: the act of buying or selling usually illegal goods. China appears to be the only country in the world where you can get an organ in less than 2 weeks, which is inconsistent with the clinical and scientific data and figures on the number of people executed in China every year. The Global Financial Integrity believes that around 10% of all organ donations are made via illegal avenues, with kidneys being the highest-trafficked part of the body. They wanted to be present to share their experiences in organ transplantation in France and abroad and to reveal the silence amounting to complicity in the medical and political fields on forced organ harvesting in China. Back then, there was a flowering of Chinese hospital websites like holiday places promising, like a commercial, a 100 percent transplant success, few complications, 4 minutes of circulatory arrest, a 0 percent rejection rate, and so on. Traffickers force children living in migrant camps in northern France to commit crimes, including facilitating smuggling to the United Kingdom. They are also the most difficult to trace and to interrupt. As early as 2013, the National Consultative Ethics Committee heard testimony warning that, by training Chinese doctors, French doctors could have become unwittingly complicit in forced organ harvesting. It is then that he began to understand that an execution was being planned for the day of transplantation, the donor was therefore not voluntary, and humans were being used as an organ bank for transplants in China. France - Anti-Organ Trafficking Law. Today there is an all-over problem of organ sales between France and abroad, whether it be of blood, oocytes, spermatozoids, genital organs, etc. According to Navarro, many Chinese surgeons were trained by excellent French transplant surgeons. On Dec. 12, the European Parliament will vote on a resolution against forced organ harvesting in China. A few days before the trip, he asked for the donor’s records to get at least a minimum of information on the patient before arriving at Chengdu. These measures punish those involved in these crimes and are aimed at preventing citizens of those countries from becoming complicit in these atrocities. Drug trafficking is one of the EMPACT priorities, Europol’s priority crime areas, under the 2018–2021 EU Policy Cycle. Beforehand, he wanted to make it clear that in the wake of a conference with David Kilgour, which was held in 2009 at the National Assembly on the same subject, he initiated a petition among French surgeons to raise awareness of the ethical issue. For Professor Belghiti, selling organs is unacceptable wherever it may take place. Most of these countries are economically weak and have limited education and job opportunities. At the time, Jacques Belghiti’s role was to raise awareness—especially in America where businessmen run large scientific research international corporations—on the unacceptable actions happening in China. According to Navarro, there were and there are still some French transplant surgeons who are complicit in the development of transplantation in China. By Laurent Gey, Epoch Times | December 11, 2013. “Today the ideas taking over are: euthanasia, marketing the body, the sales of human body parts, all of which is distancing itself from the inalienable, individual, and unique characteristic of the human body,” Boyer said. In some countries, surgical teams are a very powerful medical body connected to the ruling party, they can act as they see fit and with all means at their disposal in the organization of the organ trade. As I wrote in Living Donor Organ Transplants, the sites of illicit transplant have expanded from Asia to the Middle East, Eastern Europe, South Africa, Central Asia, Latin America and the US. Trafficking in persons is one of the most profitable crimes in the world, after drug trafficking and counterfeit. Trafficking in human beings is the fact of recruiting, transporting, ... the removal of an organ, exploitation of begging, housing or working conditions that are contrary to human dignity, or forcing the victim to commit any crime or offence. It was at the very same time that he heard about Chinese-American patients going to China to be transplanted and coming back with more or less serious complications. Forced Organ Harvesting in China. They do not appear in court or in the calculation of death row executions. French surgeons have been widely solicited by China. Didier Sicard said that France must not participate in what is basically an ethical flaw by concluding that “it is impossible to support strict ethical laws in our country while at the same time have a detached attitude when outside the country.”. This practice also results in a transplantation system without transparency, since the management of all prisons in China is entirely left in the hands of the police and the army. Another researcher, investigative journalist Ethan Gutmann, co-authored a book in 2014 titled The Slaughter after seven years of investigation into organ harvesting from prisoners of conscience in China. This plan reaffirms the French government’s commitment to reinforcing the fight against human trafficking on the basis of 45 precise measures. People do not realize what it will mean for society in the future, that their own body can become a commodity for another person. Medical professionals took part in the discussion: Professor Francis Navarro, transplant surgeon at the Montpellier University Hospital; Professor Didier Sicard, former President of the National Consultative Ethics Committee; Professor Belghiti, transplant surgeon at Beaujon University Hospital; Professor Yves Chapuis, member of the Académie de Médecine, former surgeon, and a pioneer of organ transplantation in France; and Professor Patrick Pessaux, transplant surgeon at the Strasbourg University Hospital. Furthermore, the full integration of the issue within the human trafficking field as a whole is … Following the bill introduced by Valérie Boyer in 2010 in the text on Bioethics, the Department of Health stated that regulations on organ trafficking existed in France and that it was of no concern to the French. Trafficking in organs in Europe Parliamentary Assembly Assemblée parlementaire Trafficking in organs in Europe Doc. Jacques Belghiti was appointed President of the International Society of Transplantation in 2006. UNODC response. Due to organ shortages, the waiting time for a transplant in the country is usually three years, and this waiting time increases each year. The bill’s explanatory statement highlighted the current situation with organ transplants in France. Sixty-five members of the parliament signed the bill to uphold bioethics in the medical and scientific community. This was the main industry and source of income for many hospitals. (Minghui.org) The National Assembly, the lower house of the bicameral French parliament, introduced a bill on September 15, 2020, to stop malpractice related to organ transplants, with an emphasis on illicit transplants carried out outside Europe. In 2008, confronted with the fact of this bank of living organs from China, health professionals from 78 countries gathered at the Istanbul conference and for the first time defined what trafficking organs and the trade in transplantation actually were, and what it meant for a number of surgeons to go to China in the name of scientific cooperation. The China Tribunal analyzed a wide variety of evidence and determined that forced organ harvesting has taken place in China for about 20 years. Indeed the current regulations on the commercialization of the body in France are still unique worldwide and in Europe. In January 2009, the government amended its anti-trafficking law to include a specific definition of forced labor. France must also carry this message on the European front, so as not to stay silent and satisfied with domestic laws and regulations combined with a detached international attitude. France prohibits trafficking for sexual exploitation through Article 225 of its penal code, which prescribes penalties that are sufficiently stringent and commensurate with those prescribed for rape. Origin countries: The countries (or area in a country) from where victims originate. In 2007, Francis Navarro participated in intercollegiate exchanges between Montpellier and Chengdu in China. The adoption of the Convention represents a historical milestone in the fight against organ trafficking. According to Didier Sicard, former President of the National Consultative Ethics Committee, France remains a model country in the world regarding organ transplantation. Harold King spoke of his doubts concerning the Hangzou resolution signed a few weeks ago by 169 Chinese hospitals in which the Chinese government plans to limit the use of organs from prisoners sentenced to death and executed. Category: Although France signed the Council of Europe Convention against Trafficking in Human Organs in 2019, implementing the treaty and bringing violators to justice in France could be difficult. Organ trafficking in China is more active than ever despite efforts to crack down on the trade, with kidneys being openly bought and sold online in a dozen cities across the country. Because of the quality of their expertise, French surgeons and transplant surgeons have always had excellent relations with other universities around the world. It generates a yearly profit of 32 billion dollars. The different speakers at the press conference believe that the outcome of this discussion will depend on the dissemination of this information, especially to the French doctors and surgeons who have not made a stand in this regard. As of today, the extent of organ trafficking is still unknown as to the number of such transplants performed annually. The panel, which took place Nov. 27, was led by Member of Parliament for the Bouches-du-Rhône Valérie Boyer and by Dr. Harold King, contact person in France for Doctors Against Forced Organ Harvesting(DAFOH). The International Coalition to End Transplant Abuse in China. All are facilitated by local criminal networks but those run by organised global criminal syndicates are the most dangerous, mobile, and widespread. Human trafficking occurs in almost every country in the world and can be described by 3 categories (countries can be any combination of these): 1. Professor Francis Navarro, transplant surgeon at the University Hospital of Montpellier spoke of his experience of working with a Chinese hospital. In practice, limiting the use of organs to prisoners sentenced to death has never been respected in China. According to him, in spite of all the resources that were given to these surgeons, the scientific and medical result is zero, and nothing has been left for the international community. The Trafficking in Persons Protocol supplementing the Transnational Organized Crime Convention includes trafficking in persons for the purpose of organ removal. According to Xavier Breton, Member of Parliament for the Ain, (who came especially between meetings), there will be an opportunity for discussion on the subject when the new law on Family Affairs comes in. 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